Nonlinear pattern and algal dual-impact in N2O emission with increasing trophic levels in shallow lakes
作者：Zhou, Yiwen; Xu, Xiaoguang; Song, Kang;
Shallow lakes are considered important contributors to emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas, in aquatic ecosystems. There is a large degree of uncertainty regarding the relationship between N2O emissions and the progress of lake eutrophication, and the mechanisms underlying N2O emissions are poorly understood. Here, N2O emission fluxes and environmental variables in different lakes along a trophic state gradient in the Yangtze River basin were studied. N2O emission fluxes were -1.0-53.0mug m-2 h-1 and 0.4-102.9mug m-2 h-1 in summer and winter, respectively, indicating that there was marked variation in N2O emissions among lakes of different trophic state. The non-linear exponential model explained differences in N2O emission fluxes by the degree of eutrophication (p < 0.01). TN and chl-a both predicted 86% of the N2O emission fluxes in shallow lakes. The predicted N2O emission fluxes based on the IPCC EF5r overestimated the observed fluxes, particularly those in hyper-eutrophic lakes. These findings demonstrated that nutrient-rich conditions and algal accumulation are key factors determining N2O emission fluxes in shallow lakes. Furthermore, this study also revealed that temperature and algae accumulation-decomposition determine an N2O emission flux in an intricate manner. A low temperature, i.e., winter, limits algae growth and low oxygen consumption for algae decomposition. The environment leaves a high dissolved oxygen concentration, slowing down N2O consumption as the final step of denitrification. In summer, with the oxygen consumed by excess algal decomposition, the N2O production is limited by the complete denitrification as well as the limited substrate supply of nitrate by nitrification in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Such cascading events explained the higher N2O emission fluxes from shallow lakes in winter compared with summer. This trend was amplified in hyper-eutrophic shallow lakes after algal disappearance. Collectively, algal accumulation played a dual role in stimulating and impeding N2O emissions, especially in hyper-eutrophic lakes. This study expands our knowledge of N2O emissions from shallow lakes in which eutrophication is underway.
来源：WATER RESEARCH 卷：203出版年: 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117489